There are more huge stars in the universe than what the scientists assumed

As per recent studies, there are surprisingly vast numbers of massive stars spotted across various regions of the world, making it more interesting to know how the galaxies evolved near and far. 

Using ALMA – Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at Chile, astronomers investigated vast bouts of stars formations in about four gas-enriched, distant and star bust galaxies. These are the galaxies where star formations are 100 or more times faster, as compared to Milky Way, our galaxy.

These massive stars of such galaxies, release gasses and initiates super explosions that cause the release of a large quantum of energy and stellar materials into space. As per a statement released from ESO – European Southern Observatory, this kind of activities has a parallel impact on the surrounding areas of these stars. 

The researchers, by using a kind of similar technique equivalent to radiocarbon dating, in the starburst galaxies, look for different types of traces of carbon monoxide to determine mass distribution of these stars. In a statement by Zhi-Yu Zhang, an astronomer and the lead researcher at the University of Edinburgh, has said that oxygen isotopes have been associated with massive and more massive stars, whereas, carbon isotopes are synonymous with much smaller and intermediate-mass stars. As oxygen and carbon, both combine in forming carbon monoxide, which means that different formations of carbon monoxide are formed more regularly in massive stars than the small ones. 

As compared these massive stars have a much shorter life as compared to the low mass stars like the sun, which has been shinning for billion years. By understanding how different kind of stars have been distributed, it helps us understand the foundation and evolution of these galaxies in the history of universe, as per the statement. 

This new study has revealed a higher quantum of these giant stars within the starburst galaxies than what was expected previously. Researchers further concluded that results similar to these had been found much closer to home at a region of satellite galaxy in Milky Way, been called as the Large Magellanic Cloud. 

In a statement by Rob Ivison, director for science at ESO and co-author of the study revealed saying that the finding has led to interpret their understanding and conclusions of cosmic history. He also mentioned that all astronomers who have been building models of the universe should look back at their drawing boards with more understanding and sophistication.   

Why Moon or Mars, when you have Venus?

Forget about going to the moon or even Mars; now it’s time to fly to the Venus. 

Small or significant, every company in the space industry has plans to send humans to some planet or moon. We have heard of Mars- the Red Planet or the moon, but a very reliable name is thinking of neither. NASA is considering sending humans to Venus, and the organisation is serious about it. 

NASA scientists have proposed a spacecraft like the steam-punk, which weighs almost nothing. This spacecraft could float in the atmosphere of Venus effortlessly. Venus is much remotely located as compared to mars, the time required to reach there hence is much more. Havoc (High Altitude Venus Operational Concept) would be able to send astronauts to Venus in lesser time than it would take to reach Mars. 

NASA is not talking about building colonies on some alien planet, but thinking about the not so beautiful Venus. Having a name quite enticing, the planet is full with clouds of sulfuric acid and a surface having the heat of about 864 degrees Fahrenheit. The planet is covered with volcanoes, lava, crater, and mountains. Still, scientists find it more accessible than mars.

Venus supposedly had a habitat for life previously. It has the size as well as mass equivalent to that of Earth and is more hospitable than any other planet in the solar system, excluding earth. The temperature though is much cooler, but the atmospheric pressure is again the same. The additional benefit is the availability of Solar energy. 

NASA believes that soon, an aerial colony can be built up and humans could start living in the atmosphere of Venus. The mission for Venus will require a double launch; one spacecraft will carry the crew along with a robotic cargo ship having a hundred feet long space capsule. It would take a hundred days to reach its destination. Specific advancements in technology need to be made before this theory is put into the practical experience. How the spacecraft would be designed, how the solar panels will deal with the sulfuric acid in the atmosphere and how the arrival and departure will be planned. There are a lot of questions and a strange but adventurous expedition. The challenging environment will open up the gates of opportunities never even imagined. The only thing awaited is “the launch.”

Tesla’s Next Roadster Will Feature Actual SpaceX Rocket Thrusters-Elon Musk 

According to Telsa CEO Elon Musk, to improve the performance, the package option of forthcoming Telsa Roadster will include ten small rocket thrusters, which are arranged around the car. According to Telsa HQ, the general policy is not confirmed until now. More technical details will be provided by Musk on Sunday morning. 

Musk tweeted and said that the flame spitting engines and the burning rocket fuel are not legal. He told the enhance roadster would use COPVS, which are used in the Falcon 9 rocket on the SpaceX. On Saturday, Musk wrote that New Telsa Roadster would enhance all gas sports cars. They can not only enhance the acceleration but also change the nature of the high-performance vehicle. The thrusters can provide direct assistance. 

Significantly, SpaceX COPV played a role on the Sept. 1, 2016 explosion of a Falcon 9 during fueling, which ultimately resulted in the failure of the launch. In this case, earlier this year an oversight panel advising NASA was formed, which raised questions about the use of COPV for grouped missions. SpaceX has accepted to a protected redesign, which would extend to units used in the SpaceX package Roadster. 

The update of Telsa stated that ultra-premium sports car was introduced in late 2017. The new Roadster is specially designed to be available in the year 2020. The price for the same would be $200,000. Now no details have been revealed about the thrusters pertaining to SpaceX cost as of yet. This news provides the necessary details about Musk and how he would feature the next SpaceX rocket soon by Telsa Roadster. SpaceX option package will include ten small rockets as well. The rockets will allow accelerating the speed and thereby enabling Telsa to fly. 

The gas is contained in the ultra-high pressure in SpaceX COPV rocket which is very crucial. Whenever the rocket needs fuel, it immediately replenishes the power draw operation of the air pump. Musk said they are going further with this and will feature actual SpaceX rocket soon. The new Tesla car version was revealed at an event whereby the announcement of Telsa Semi was made. By reading, this news, readers would reach the point stated by Musk and get more details about SpaceX launch of rocket thrusters.

Did Mars have a cold and icy climate in the past?

The climate of the Red Planet in the ancient times is an ever continuing debate. Some feel that it had a warm and wet environment while others think that it had cold and icy weather. New findings say that the weather for the Red Planet was freezing and icy. 

Mars is full of valley networks, too many lake deposits and deltas as well. This shows at some point of time it must have had an abundance of water. Such a condition might be around 4 billion years ago. But the climatic conditions of the planet’s past situations have not been warm enough to produce liquid water to fill up these places. 

According to Briony Horgan, who is an assistant professor of earth, atmospheric as well as planetary sciences at the University of Purdue has said that some of the people are trying to analyse the ancient climate of Mars in similar lines as what was done in case of Earth. In trying to do so, they are facing a lot of trouble. It is very critical to create a warm Mars because Sun was a lot fainter at that time. In fact, the entire solar system was a bit cooler at that time. He further added that many of the researchers are working on the ancient climatic model of Mars, but Horgan and his team is trying to identify the climatic condition of the Red Planet by studying the records about the volcanic eruption in Mars.

Presence of volcanoes and their eruptions can be traced way back. Volcanoes can be found out in some of the most studied regions of the Red Planet. However, there is a region which has a low and smooth topography located at the southern parts of the planet and is known as Sisyphi Planum. In this region, there are close to hundred flat-topped mounds which are known as Sisyphi Montes. Experts feel that this region could be highly prone to volcanic eruptions. 

According to the experts, when volcanoes tend to explode underneath the ice sheets as well as the glaciers on Earth, then heat as well as the meltwater, combine to create flat-topped and steep-sided mountains which are known as the “tuyas” or popularly known as the table mountains. In situations when the sub-glacial explosions don’t hit the top of the surface of the ice, then the tops of the mountains become cone-shaped in place of flat shaped.

In other words, the mineralogy which is created during such events is one of its kinds because of the interactions between the hot lava as well as the cold glacier meltdown.

TV Stations & Satellite Operations Negotiation after Granting of Harrison County FCC petitions

According to country judge, Hugh Taylor, the Federal Commission Communication has granted its access to Texas TV channels. The satellite providers and news stations can implement this. He said they won’t do anything at this point. The FCC has 120 days to review or deny the market modification after the submission of the petition. After the petition is granted, the satellite operators must reach the agreements with each affiliate stations. This process may take 30 to 90 days.

However, La Plata County, Colorado was the first in the country. It has requested market modification agreements from the FCC between satellite providers and networks. These agreements were set to be worked out after FCC had granted its petitions after 120 days, in March 2017. This primary purpose is to bring Denver-based TV access to the county. This was after the ten years of efforts to provide La Plata County residents access to Colorado news, weather and sports on television.

According to Taylor, “the process should be simple and comfortable with a simple communication between their providers and residents. He said its just very simple to get the signal after authorising the box. According to the order of FCC’s Memorandum Opinion that was adopted in June after the grant of the petition, the satellite provider must carry the responsibility of both the stations. It must be immediate for the subscribers who are only changing bills and operational. 

If the existing subscribers would require a visitor service or new equipment to access the station, then the satellite providers roll out for a service, this is the order added recently by the petition. According to the FCC order, the current Harrison County would require a second satellite DISH to receive the HD version of the stations. Further discussion stated that the subscribers would obtain the release of both stations without any kinds of change in equipment. 

According to Taylor, he received calls from other counties after the success of FCC, who is seeking interest in modelling after Harrison. Regarding the drafting of above petitions, he said only a few have done across the nation. Elected representatives support the petitions. The FCC’s Media Bureau stated the petitions on sought comment and public notice. According to Judge Taylor, there would be a period whereby for a rehearing or reconsideration of the FCC’s approval someone could file a motion. 

The amazing Space run

Space is a mystery unforeseen, an event that takes place there may trigger a chain of events that may leave an impact you can’t imagine. For more than a century, organisations are developing something related to space, be it in a science fiction movie or the real project of organisations like NASA. SpaceX is one big name in the aerospace industry that has outweighed several older Munich. Founded by Elon Musk, this company is something that turns fiction into reality. The commercialisation or privatisation of space by companies like these has raised a war where everyone wants to occupy the unknown world or at least reach there.  

Elon Musk also owns Tesla, and it is evident from his choices and the decisions he has made that somewhere he is inclined towards science fiction movies and it has got proof as he posted a GIF on twitter from the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. The GIF poses David Bowman, the main character running on a track in the deep space.

Elon might be looking for some inspiration for the upcoming SpaceX project – BF Spaceship. He although has bigger plans for establishing a city on Mars – the Red Planet, but this time what he was looking for was only a running track, though laid in the open space.

He has been working out to find a way to send non-astronaut humans to enjoy the trip to space, for such a mission he needs extensive preparations as for an astronaut in is his work, but for any other human, it would be a trip he would have paid a significant amount for. So he needs to add some luxury to the spaceship. He announced via his tweet on Friday that the BF spaceship would have a similar running track like that shown in the movie.

In the movie, Bowman is making use of a centrifugal device which is creating enough gravitational force to keep him from being lost into the vacuum, so he can run on the track for staying fit in the space. The space vessel depicted in the movie is Discovery one. BF Spaceship is desperately awaiting its luxury update.

Exercising is crucial for human body be it on Earth or in the Space, for a mission small or lasting a hundred days. Hence, it would be a good idea to consider the effects of space travel on the human body and make arrangements to minimise the ill effects to negligible. This way only humans can make it ultimately to the broader space and planet Mars.