Microbots are Capable of Sensing Environs, human’s intestines and pipelines

MIT engineers have created, small, brand new robots; they are capable of sensing their surroundings. The microbots are roughly the size of a human egg cell. This could be used to discover hard to reach passage in the human body, such as a gas pipeline or intestines. Scientists designed these tiny robots by the combination of electric circuitry to colloids. This is a mixture of insoluble particles, and they are so small that could never settle in air or water. 

Michael Strano, a professor of chemical engineering, told MIT News, said that, they wanted to figure out the methods and graft to be completed. That should include intact circuits onto colloidal particles. Previously researchers tried to convert small molecules and particles into robots, but scientists have majorly focused their skills on improving the mobility of microbots. The group of engineers at MIT wished to make microbots that are more functional. 

The latest microbot’s circuitry allows the tine cell-sized robots to sense their surroundings, basic computer tasks, and store data. Small photodiode offers each bot’s circuit, tiny bit of electrical energy, that will be enough for sensing the environmental surroundings and capable of observing the record. 

Researchers developed a circuit from thin, flexible materials like graphene, instead of using a traditional microchip. The circuits only require a small bit of energy to perform. Their flexibility will allow them to be attached to collide particles and that is subjected to complex plethoras of forces when suspended to gas and liquid. 

Researchers have written their unique microbots, that is the smallest capable sensing robot.  This week this is published in the Nature Nanotechnology journal. The robots could be used to improve less invasive colonoscopies. They would be used to find structural vulnerability inside gas and oil pipelines. Finally, scientists expect other researchers that they will improve on their methods and come up with new strategies to utilize the robotics technology. 

Strano said that they see this paper as the introduction of a new field in robotics. Researchers are trying to find the innovative way to make this discover successful. This is very beneficial for human kinds, and these robots are very keen and specially designed to accomplish the work quickly. Engineers are figuring out about this process and trying their best to make it more functional. These tiny robots are handy and flexible. 

MAVEN: Spacecraft of NASA finds the STOLEN electrons which enables Aurora on Mars

Usually, near the poles in the night sky, Auroras appear as colorful ghostly displays on Earth. Our neighbor Mars has auroras as well, and NASA’s spacecraft MAVEN found a unique kind of Martian auroras. This Martian aurora occurs in the daytime in the Red Planet, where auroras are very difficult to see. 

When energetic particles plunge into the planet’s atmosphere, aurora flare up and the influential gases made them glow. The electronics caused this natural phenomenon. Sometimes protons can make this phenomenon, but it’s scarce. Now, the MAVEN community has understood that protons were doing the same things in the Mars, like electrons, do it at the Earth to create the aurora.  

When the sun ejects a significant, robust proton pulse that is hydrogen atoms created by extreme heat, then this aurora is possible. What the proton ejects by the sun is at speeds up to two million miles per hour. This erratic flow is known as solar wind.

The MAVEN community was researching the Mars’ atmosphere with the ultraviolet spectrograph imaging, observed the ultraviolet light coming from hydrogen gas in the upper are of MARS atmosphere, and would amazingly brighten for few hours. The team could notice the brightening events took place while the MARVEN measured the growing solar wind protons and instrument the cosmic wind analyzer. These two kinds of Aurora may be impossible at first glance. Justin Deighan, who is the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder and  lead author of a paper on this research which will be introducingJuly 23 in Nature Astronomy said that when they approach Mars, the protons comes with the form of solar wind, and it converts into neutral atoms by stealing electrons from the cloud surrounding the outer edge of the planet.

The auroras of a proton could be common on Saturn’s moon Titan and Venus. These two planets lack their magnetic fields, and they have lots of hydrogen in their upper atmosphere and also plenty of electrons in it. Many stars have the same favorable conditions and have proton auroras. MAVEN mission founded this research. The principal investigator of MAVEN is based at the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, NASA Goddard manages the MAVEN project. On the earth proton auroras only occur in small regions near the poles. 

Planetary Defense within 20 years

On 11th March 1998, the asteroid astronomers around the world received new observation data, and an ominous message on the latest data explored asteroid 1997 XF11. The near earth object studies on NASA enters the third decade. This is suggested that it has the chance of hitting the earth from nearly one KM away in 2028. 

The initial asteroid orbits determination and repository observations came from the Minor Planet Center, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It was planned to alert a small astronomical community that seeks and tracks asteroids to call for new observations rapidly. Some media outlets did not know how to make an announcement and they sometimes mistakenly highlighted the prospect of the Earth doomed. 

It is discovered that the earth was never in danger from 1997 XF11. After a thorough orbit analysis performing, Don Yeomans, then the leader of the Solar System Dynamics group at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and his colleague Paul Chodas ended this. Chodas, who is now director of NASA’s Center for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS), located at JPL said that the 2028 influence was importantly impossible. 

Chodas said that they still getting queries about XF11 influencing in 2028. There is no chance that XF11 influencing our planet for the next 200 years. He thanks to CNEOS’ precise orbit calculations using observation data to the center of the minor planet. He said they provide the final orbits map for the solar system. 

NEOS are comets and asteroids that bring them into the solar system within 121 million miles of the orbit of the earth around the sun. NEOS means near earth objects. NEO 1997 XF11 media frenzy demonstrated the requirement for precision and clarity about the close objects near the earth and communicated with the public. Chados make this statement. 

Within ten years of time, NASA’s original aspects of 1998 congressional request will detect at least 90% of all NEOS. To accomplish the congressional goal the headquarters of NASA requested for JPL to establish a new office to work with the data offered by the international astronomical union-sanctioned Minor planet submission center. The academic institutions of the United States and US air force space coordinated with the observatories of the comets and asteroids. 

The small asteroids will not be a threat to influence the earth. However, they could cause a massive regional loss of life and devastations. CNEOS continues to improve in its observatory analysis. 

The exact colors of Pluto and Charon that scientists are exploring 

New Horizons spacecraft of NASA offered first close up views of Pluto and its largest moon to the humankind after three years. Scientists are still discovering the wonders of the outer solar system. In the year 2015 July 14th the anniversary of new Horizon historical flight has been marking through Pluto system. Scientists have recovered the actual natural color images of Charon and Pluto. These color images are the refined calibrations of data accumulated by Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) of New Horizon. 

Alex Parker, a New Horizons science team co-investigator from Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado said that the processing of creating the approximate color images that would human eye perceives would bring them closer to actual color than the pictures discovered near the encounter.  

The color filter of MVIC does not match closely to the wavelengths visible by the vision of humans, the mission of scientists particular applied processing translate. The fresh MVIC data colors would see by the eyes. The wavelength sensed by the human eye. In the year 2015, July 14th pluto approaches both the images taken as New Horizons. Charon images were taken from a range of 46,091 miles (74,176 kilometers) and Pluto from 22,025 miles (35,445 kilometers).

A single color MVIC is scanned from other images of New Horizons. The excellent features on each would be visible from the north polar region of Charon, that is known as Mordor Macula. This is the expanse of pluto’s nitrogen-and-methane-ice rich “heart, and it is called as Sputnik Planitia.

In the year 2019 January 1st a flyby of Kuiper Belt object Ultima Thule is preparing for New Horizon’s next encounter. This is a billion miles beyond Pluto. Presently the spacecraft is operating from about 3.8 billion miles ( 6.1 billion KM) from the earth and 40 times far from the sun and the ground, and it will start its long-distance observations and ultima measurements in late August. 

The Southwest Research Institute New Horizons Principal Investigator Alan Stern said that they celebrate the third historic exploration of the Pluto system anniversary and this is the most distant discovered in the worlds ever.  They are seeking for the record-breaking Ultima Thule exploration in just five months from now. 

Preparation is going on, and long distance observation of Pluto is just happening in a few months. The sun and the earth are the farthest from Pluto. 

Dusty secrets search by storm chasers on Mars

One of the dust events engulfed in the month of June in the planet. First, on May 30th scientists observed a small-scale dust storm, and by 20th June it had been global. The opportunity of the rover has sudden visibility dropped, and this runs on solar energy. Scientists had suspended this activity to preserve the batteries of the rover. There is no response received from the rover until 18th July. 

Keeping the temperature in the night from dropping down to lower, all the dust acts as a climatic insulator. Nearly 50 years old rover could take weeks or months to settle the dust. Based on the global storm of 2001, NASA scientists measure that before the early September the haze has cleared for Opportunity to call home and to power up. 

The solar panels of Opportunity covered with a beautiful film of dust when the sky starts to clear. This could delay the rover recovery as it accumulates energy to recharge batteries. Wind is required but, it is not enough for a complete recovery. When the team of Opportunity waits to hear from the rover, the scientists on Mars missions had a decidedly less chance to analyze the robust phenomenon.  

Smith said that The THEMIS team had maximized the frequency of climatic observations from every ten days to twice per week since the dust storm started. The mystery of storm, which has gone global, yet to be solved. There are numerous local or regional scale storms cover an area of the planet during the dusty season. Scientists are not sure that the smaller dust storm could end encircling the full planet.  

Scientists are searching for the details of the storm and its rising and falling. The heating solar of the dust changes the climatic temperature. The varying temperature in Mars could affect the wind pattern. Scientists would find out why every year the storm is rising and falling? They wonder why some regions are extra rainy and some areas are extra dry in a regular pattern. Bruce Jakosky, the MAVEN orbiter’s principal investigator, said that when the MAVEN orbit enters in the Mars orbit, they have been waiting for a global dust storm. 

Scientists expect that the dust storm would last at least for some months. Every time you spot on the Mars, remember that the scientists are accumulating the information about the mysterious Red Planet weather.

Yang Liwei: Space station era readying by China

Yang Liwei, director of the China Manned Space Engineering Office and the country’s first astronaut, said that in the year 2020 China is accelerating its time for a space station with the core capsule. He told that the Chinese media has two space stations experimental modules that will be sent into space in 2021-2022. Three or four human-crewed mission has been planned, and cargo spacecraft has scheduled in 2021-2022. 

After the building of the major parts of the space station, a big optical telescope capsule will be sent into the orbit to fly with the station that is said by Yang. At the time of station construction, the human-crewed space missions will grow to about five years. When China started sending astronauts into space more than a decade ago, the recruitment of astronaut will be increased. In 1965, Yang had the rank of major general, who is born Suizhong County, of Huludao City, northeast China’s Liaoning Province and he became the first astronaut in China when he went into abroad in space abroad the  Shenzhou-5 craft on 2003, October 15th. Yang recalled that every second of that day was entirely new for him. 

China named as Dawn project to the manned flight plan code in the year 1970, but it is lacked in the technological and economic condition to implement it. In the year 1986, the state council listed space technology in a top technology development plan. Shenzhou-5 has been successful and made China the third country to get the manned travel space technology. China got space transport technologies through Shenzhou-6 spacecraft, the Shenzhou-5, and extra-vehicular space-walk technologies and completed the Shenzhou-7 mission.

The Shenzhou-8 and Shenzhou-9 missions helped China master autonomous and manned rendezvous and docking technologies. China’s manned space flight technologies have matured since the Shenzhou-10 mission. From Shenzhou-5 to Shenzhou-11, China has sent 11 astronauts into space.

Yang said that he could only eat prepared food like mooncake when he was aboard Shenzhou-5. But when Shenzhou-11 carried Chen Dong Jing Haipeng and to China’s first space lab Tiangong-2 in 2016, the two astronauts chose more than 100 kinds of food for their one-month stay. Yang said that in the year 2003 when Shenzhou-5 was orbiting the Earth he could communicate only 15% time with the ground controllers. He said when Jing Chen was in space in 2016 they could use mobile phones, send messages and watch new programs. 

Increasing the efficiency of solar cells

Solar energy and devices that generate or run on have been researched for increasing cleaner energy’s application as well as the efficiency of the cells that store the energy. Voltage loss has remained a matter of concern for the scientists since solar cells are used to power up our satellites distant from us but serving as our spy in the depth-less universe. Recently a team of about twenty-five researchers from seven different institutes came up with a modification in the design of solar cell which is supposed to increase its efficiency and reduce the loss of voltage. Mr. Feng Gao, Associate Professor at Linkoping University, Sweden led this team.

The carbon-based material was used to develop these organic solar cells. Unique advantages like lower manufacturing cost, higher flexibility, and lower weight make these cells a feasible solution to some of the significant issues faced in harnessing solar energy. Energy loss and high cost have limited the use of the solar power on our planet. If these two problems are looked after, a newer and greener source of energy will power up the majority of our appliances. This can be done using a rational design of the cell as per Associate Professor Feng Gao, who is addressing the division of biomolecular and organic electronics.

His design rules can save a significant amount of the energy that is lost due to inappropriate storage or improper energy conversion practices.  It was believed that solar cells had an efficiency of only 25%. The theoretical limit for the same is 33%. Though we have managed to make this theoretical limit practical, still we did not make the most of it. Olle Inganas, Professor of Biomolecular and organic electronics, Linkoping University, has stated that there is no difference in the theoretical limit and practically feasible vale if the cells are designed manufactured appropriately. 

Two fundamental rules can be used to solve the problem of energy loss in a solar cell:

1.    Minimizing the energy offset period

When the cell absorbs photons from the sun, electrons move to an excited state. Since holes are formed in the ground state, the particles remain attracted to them.  To separate these electrons from holes an medium is required. For the flow of energy, a donor and receiver of electrons are essential, the loss of power during this transfer is high. Minimizing the time of transmission of particles between donor and acceptor components can help solve the problem. 

2.    Increasing the efficiency of the low-gap element.

To remove electrons from their position and allow the flow of energy, a medium is added. This medium should have high photoluminescence.

Several materials have been used to achieve these targets; some proved to be incompatible while some are still under research to offer the best out of solar cells.

Toughened carbon isotopes

A honey-comb shaped lattice of carbon called graphene is an unusual structure in itself. The pattern, when placed in the form of multiple sheets put together, has proved to be significantly robust and efficient of increasing mechanical performance. Carbon is itself entirely reactive, and its compounds with anything that can make it stable, this particular chemical property of carbon has made it suitable for use in manufacturing different products as well as add more features to them.

Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology has announced that graphene’s mechanical properties are stronger when it gets layered. When monolayered graphene films are folded with efficiency, they show higher mechanical strength owing to the reinforcement offered by the similar polymers. Professor Rodney S. Ruoff is a distinguished scientist working for polymers. He with his research team from the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM) has to lead this research. CMCM is located within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) at UNIST. To assist with the work, other teams lead by Professor Nicola Pugno from University of Trento in Italy, and Professor Seunghwa Ryu and Dr. Stefano Signetti from KAIST were partakers of the research. They have modeled a theory complimenting the results of Professor Ruoff’s research. 

They folded into half A-5 sized sheets which were 400 nanometers thick around 12 times. One could hold a paper up to 7 times was an accepted fact till Britney Gallivan folded it 12 times. Dr. Bin Wang, an IBS Research Fellow along with Professor Ruoff, accomplished this task using a water-air based interface. They wrapped the polycarbonate film 12 times and gradually did the same to graphene coated film. Graphene is itself an active compound, and increasing its tensile strength and stiffness can make it the most robust element on earth.

Research indicated an increase of 73.5% in Young’s modulus, 73.2% in strength and 59.1% in toughness modulus of a typical folded polymer sheet with only a rise of 0.085% graphene content on it. While the same growth on folding the sheets were 24.2%, 25.4%, and 14.5% respectively. The value appears to below as we are talking of fragile layers of the cloth. Professor Pugno’s group from the University of Trento in Italy has rationalized the theory, stating that the folds so reinforce the end-product offering it higher strength and stiffness. It can sustain a more considerable bending force as compared to disconnected layers.

Professor Ryu and Dr. Stefano Signetti from KAIST – Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology – supported this claim suggesting that the folded sheet was equivalent to 1024 layers of embedded graphene. Wrapping the cloth, not only offered higher mechanical reinforcement but also opened up a possibility of other potential polymers to be used similarly.


The use of gold nanoparticles can impact hydrogen economy?

Nanotechnology has been considered a dimension of science that has no limit and can offer outputs beyond our imagination. To improve the nanocomposite material and its uses, a team of scientists at Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), and Leibniz University Hannover (Leibniz Universitat Hannover) performed several experiments. The results of their research were published in an academic article -“The mechanism of charge carrier generation at the TiO2 – n-Si heterojunction activated by gold nanoparticles” in the Journal of Semiconductor Science and Technology. 

Composite material – a semiconductor developed by titanium dioxide has been found useful in various avenues. The researchers are working to identify all the possibilities of this compound being put into application. The chemical processes in this compound are very complicated. To use it more efficiently, one needs to increase the capacity of this semiconductor. For this, the flow of energy between its layers needs to be stable. 

The researchers have modeled a process to explain the processes involved in the composite’s use as a semiconductor. They are using silicon water and nanoparticles of gold along with a thin layer of titanium dioxide to create this composite. The motive is to transfer energy inside this material while keeping nanoparticles isolated from silicon. These nanoparticles if not detached can prevent the transfer of power to both silicon and titanium dioxide. This results in the loss of control. 

In the experiment, gold nanoparticles were placed on the top of the silicon wafer based pillars, and the complete structure was coated with titanium dioxide. Thus, the nanoparticles could be isolated from silicon and could come in contact with only titanium dioxide. Dr. Maxim Mishin from the University of SPbPU, who is a professor of Physics, Chemistry, and technology of Microsystems Equipment stated that with this process, the efficiency of light energy must increase.

An international scientific group at St. Petersburg established a model of this new structure. The main component of the composition being Hannover –  a silicon wafer with pillars and nanoparticles of gold on its top. 

When the wafer got oxidized, substrate and gold nanoparticles were put on its top. Pillars were next created by making sure that the substrate remained under the particles and not between them. Dealing with objects of nano-size, with gold particles having a diameter of 10 nanometers and height of pillar being 80 nanometers, was a complicated activity. It needed extreme precision. It took ten days to accomplish the task of completing this experiment. With the rapid growth in technology, nanotechnology has advanced to another level.   

Cosmic-ray electron spectrum could make direct measurement through CALET

An international researchers group succeeded in growing their result from a previously measured cosmic ray that is an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 Tev with Electron Calorimetric telescope (CALET) 

CALET is an optimized detector, which observes high-energy electrons, that was installed on an experimental Japanese Module Kibo on the international space station (ISS) in the year 2015, August. It has been gathering data since 2015 October. 

Professor Shoji Torii of Waseda University, the principal investigator of the CALET mission, said that he had been told that the international scientific community is interested in CALET observation because of their objectives is to understand the central aspect of high-energy nature of dark and cosmic rays in the universe.

The acceleration and origin of cosmic rays are not widespread, and the infinite- ray electrons are one of the primary targets of high-energy of cosmic ray research. Some electrons measurements above 1TeV have been robust to accomplish because they need high-precision cosmic ray particles energy measurements, identification of accurate electron and rare electron flux, that is more than 1,000 times higher in the TeV energy region. 

Professor Torii explains that the long-term calorimeter CALET’s capabilities and ISS observation can identify the incident particles, measure the energy particles and detect the incident direction. By exposing the shower development particles, their team has enabled to perform actual cosmic rays electrons measurements into the TeV region. In the year 2017 November, the team has reported their result about measuring cosmic ray electrons for the first time, that energy is ranging from 10 GeV to 3 TeV in the physical review letters. 

In the recent study, the team developed new data analysis technology to maximize the higher energies detection. This could double the statistics compared to their previous CALET study to get the high-precision cosmic ray electron measurements up to 4.8 TeV. 

The primary goal of the precise energy spectrum is the high possibility of discovering nearby astrophysical cosmic ray energy and discovering the nature of dark matter. 

Professor Torii says that the statistics will develop three times more data energy observation. It will minimize the systematic uncertainties; include some of the detector response.   All the studies published in the online review letter on 25th JUNE 2018. CALET is an optical detector that observes this can measure high-energy electrons and the cosmic-ray spectrum.