One of the most famous rockets within the Russian rocket space armory is Proton. It is in use since the period of 1965. This vehicle is mostly used for the launching of different commercial as well as Russian Government Satellites. Till the mid of 2018, this rocket has taken off for more than 400 times and fortunately, most of them have been successful launches. Some of the unforgettable launches through Proton that has taken place are the Mir Space Station of Russia which was sent to the orbit in the year of 1986. Some other memorable launching includes sending Zarya as well as Zvezda modules pertaining to the International Space Station in the year of 1998 & 2000 respectively. More recently it has launched the Trace Gas orbiter which belonged to the European-Russian ExoMars Mission. It has also launched other spacecraft to Venus as well as Mars.
The rockets for the Russian Government are being manufactured in Khrunichev State Research and Production Centre plant which is located in Moscow. However, the rockets are launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome which is located in Kazakhstan.
Earlier proton was known as the intercontinental ballistic missile which was named as UR-500, however, its objective was changed later on for the purpose of launching space payloads as per the records of the Britannia Encyclopedia. The initial launch was made in the year of 1965 and thereafter the launches that took place with the help of Proton had a success rate of 90 percent. But again this fact we have to keep in mind that in the latter part of 1960 & early parts of 1970, different missions that were launched to Moon & Mars failed. However, they had sent successful missions to the Salyut Space Station.
Among the other missions that were successful included the Zond 5 mission which carried tortoises as well as other creatures around the moon. This mission was just followed by the Apollo 8 where humans were being carried to the moon for the first time. Proton is also remembered for launching different Luna missions. Some such instances are Luna 16 as well as Luna 17 which were conducted during the month of 1970.
Even the Mars 2 and the Mars 3 mission were launched on Proton rockets in the year of 1971 and both of them landed safely on the red planet. However, the Mars 96 mission failed with the help of the Proton launch which was tried in November 1996.