The European Space Agency (ESA) has three missions planned. A survey of the ancient universe on a high energy scan observatory with the infrared capability to analyze the formation of the different components of space and a craft which will orbit Venus. It is a part of ESA’s “Cosmic Vision” program, which is scheduled to be launched in 2032.

The three missions have been selected from about 25 proposals which were put forward by the scientific community. Theseus, EnVision, and Spica will take place simultaneously, and a final decision regarding them will be made in 2021.

Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor, also known as Theseus aims to study and observe events which will transient in the high energy universe across the whole of cosmos. It plans to carry out a census of gamma-ray bursts emitted in the first billion years of the world, which will shed light on the life cycle of some of the earliest stars.

Bursts of gamma rays are released during a supernova or as a dying star collapses soon after a supernova to form a black hole. Theseus will now supply the precise locations of these events. It can be followed up by ground or space-based facilities which operate at corresponding wavelengths.

Additionally, Theseus will benefit in observations of gravitational waves. It can be done by identifying and locating radiation from a variety of sources scoped by some other detectors. The primary objective of astronomy is to understand the evolution of galaxies, planets, and stars. These areas could be explored using an infrared survey, which can peer through the black clouds formed of dust, hiding the sites of star birth.

Spica (Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics), happens to be a European-Japanese venture that can bring the vast improvement in far-infrared spectroscopic as well as survey capacities when compared to NASA’s Spitzer. ESA’s space observatory is more than capable of ensuring advances in this field.

Venus, which is also widely known as the evil twin of our planet, has evolved quite differently from it. Venus has been privy to a disastrous greenhouse effect. As a result, it is surrounded by a toxic atmosphere.

EnVision will follow up on ESA’s Venus Express which focused mainly on atmospheric research. The mission will help determine Venus’ geological activity as well as its relationship with its atmosphere. It will help shed light on why Earth and Venus evolved so differently from each other, irrespective of their shape and size, which is more or less same.