In a bathtub, whirlpools are experienced on a regular basis. A whirling mass of fluid is formed while the water gets drained and these whirls are mostly stable. The same structure can be seen with magnetic materials as well.

When magnetic moments are made to aligned in a circle, these magnetic whirls are created. These skyrmions are interesting not only for conducting basic research as they are extremely stable but also because it has small dimension and can be useful for creation of future magnetic storage.

These are the reasons they are at large body of the research center at present. The critical question which is raised here is when and how they occur. Several researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM), the University of Cologne for the first time show that magnetic skyrmions can be formed because of various mechanisms in distinctive phases in the same material.

These skyrmions are usually present in a thermodynamic parameter range, i.e., a variety of temperature and either magnetic or electric field strength. And this is the case with all the different material in which skyrmions are found to date. Christian Pfleiderer, a physicist of TUM, explained this.

As skyrmions are stable until one finds and follow the exact physical parameter which is desirable, it imposes an obstacle for development and even industrial use of skyrmions. In a single material and two skyrmions phases which have a set of two different parameters, we have found now. Earlier it was believed that new mechanism is not very strong. But now it can be said that there are so many possibilities to develop skyrmions which are even more than what was expected.

The second phase of skyrmions at a shallow temperature

While studying metastable properties of skyrmions period which is already known, Alfonso Chaco found this new phase. He discovered this new phase at TUM. In his study, he explained that the reason behind our interest in metastable properties is that it helps in knowing about related energies and also about the skyrmions stability. While exploring it, we learned the mechanism behind their formation and what destroys them. And while examining this measurement, I found that something highly unexpected and unfamiliar was happening.

Markus Garst said that “For more than ten years we have been working on skyrmions and at this current project we are working from one and a half year, and we have achieved expected collaborations between the groups.”