Metallic hydrogen is one of the scarce material available on Earth, and more than 80 percent of planets – including Saturn, Jupiter and hundreds of extrasolar planets.Its rare in our solar system in spite of its rarity on Earth – makes metallic hydrogen a unique focus for researchers at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory of Laser Energetics (LLE). They study planet evolution and formation, including how planets both inside and outside in our magnetic shield solar system.

Mohamed Zaghoo, a research associate at the LLE, says that the Metallic hydrogen is the rarest form of matter in our planetary system. .” Zaghoo and Gilbert ‘Rip’ Collins, a professor of mechanical engineering and physics and director of Rochester’s high-energy-density physics program, studied the metallic hydrogen conductivity and its effect. This mechanism generates magnetic fields on the planet earth. They published in the Astrophysical Journal.

All the elements work individually under the intense temperature and pressure. For example, water heating generates gas in the form of water vapor. Freezing produces solid ice. Hydrogen is the form of gas, but with high pressures and temperatures the situation it exists in the plant of Jupiter, hydrogen takes on the liquid metal and acts as an electric conductor. 

Scientists have already theorized for decades about the metallic hydrogen existence that is impossible to create on earth.  Zaghoo says that the condition of creating metallic hydrogen is extreme, though this hydrogen is rare in our solar system. Researchers at the LLE, use powerful OMEGA laser to lit pulses at a hydrogel capsule. The laser sample develops a high pressure, high-temperature condition. This allows breaking the hydrogen atoms. When this happens, hydrogen converted into a shiny liquid form, like the mercury element. 

Researchers are mapping the earth’s magnetic field. It is essential to understand our solar system. There are various exoplanets revealed outside our solar system. Magnetic fields and dynamo theory are major habitability key condition. Collins and Zaghoo focused their research on the relationship of dynamo action and metallic hydrogen including the depth of Jupiter where the dynamo is formed. They found dynamo gas like Jupiter, and it originates closer to the surface, where the metallic hydrogen is more powerful than the dynamo on earth. This data can in cooperate with simulated models. This will allow completing the dynamo picture effect.