The Red Planet is the evidence for its watery past across its surface in the form of large dried-out river valley networks and fantastic outflow channels imaged by orbiting spacecraft. Orbiters and rovers together with lenders are exploring the Martian surface. It is discovered that the minerals can form in the presence of liquid water. 

Nevertheless, the significant climate change over the time of the planet’s 4.6 billion year history and liquid water cannot exist on the surface today. Therefore, scientists are looking underground. The result, which has discovered from the 15 years Mars Express spacecraft already found. The water ice existed at the poles planet and buried in layers of dust. 

The liquid water presents at the polar ice caps base has long been suspected. According to the study of the earth, it is known that the melting point of water minimizes under the pressure of overlaying glacier. The presence of salt on Mars could reduce the melting point of water and keep the water liquid at below freezing point. 

It has taken a hard effort for the scientists, and they are working on this subsurface instrument technology to develop a new technique that will collect high-resolution data to their real conclusion. Ground penetrating radar uses the method of sending radar pulses to the surface and sees the timing when they reach to the spacecraft. The material properties lie between the potential signals. It can be used to measure the subsurface topography. 

The radar research shows that the Mars South Polar Region is made of various layers of ice and dust down to a depth of about 1.5 km in the 200-km-extend area analyzed in this study. A significantly light radar reflection underneath the layered deposits is identified within a 20-km-wide zone.

Dmitri Titov, ESA’s Mars Express project scientist, says that the long duration of Mars Express and the effort made by the radar group to overcome various challenges. This unique discovery is an influence on planetary science and will distribute to their understanding of the Mars evolution. The history of water is habitability; he said that. In 2003 June 2nd Mars express launched and celebrates its 15 years in orbit on 25th December this year. The sediment liquid water on Mars offers a suitable habitat, and this is one of the current Mars mission. The future rover continues to explore this mission.